22  Expertise and bias

There is considerable evidence that learning can lead to behaviour more closely approximating optimal behaviour over time. If that is the case, experts may be less prone to biases than non-experts.

22.1 The narrowness of expertise

As implied in the finding of Bornstein et al. (1999), expertise is narrow. There is little evidence that general skills underlie expert performance. Working memory, attention and learning speed are not generally better in experts. Instead, the perceptual, memory and cognitive components directly related to the task are better (Newell et al., 2007).